Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Techniques for Samples of an Essay about Someone Only a Few People Know About The essay defines a particular standpoint. The outline is there to make sure that you start and finish in time. Each description and statement needs to be vivid. Based on the duration of the essay, numerous body paragraphs will be different. You cannot write on every idea, and you might have to to take care your essay doesn't contain many diversities. A narrative essay definition may change in various universities and schools. Hence, if you believe banking essays are boring just like your company studies are, then you're probably wrong here. To have a good end product, the essay needs to be revised thoroughly. The Honest to Goodness Truth on Samples of an Essay about Someone There isn't anything wrong if you rely on it, but be certain you consider the matter of plagiarism seriously. Picking the subject of your essay offers you an advantage in the feeling that it is possible to write about som ething you're passionate ambitious. You can proceed and ask another person to go through your essay so that you obtain an original look at it. Expository essay employs formal language to go over someone or something. Things You Should Know About Samples of an Essay about Someone Subsequently, essay was defined in many different ways. Anyone reviewing the procedure for marketing essays is probably to encounter the advertising mix which is composed of the famous 4 P's which comprise the mix that constitutes the procedure for marketing essays. To direct you on your journey here are a couple tips. On-line advertising papers and advertising essays give the very best insight into how to perform an effective procedure of marketing essays. What You Should Do to Find Out About Samples of an Essay about Someone Before You're Left Behind Essay writing is a great means to internalize the facts that's been heard or read. In addition, your essay ought to be written based on the univers al rules of grammar and literature. There are only a few steps of writing a superb essay. Writing events in a chronological manner is the most significant element to remember when writing a narrative essay. Banking essays can be real fun to play with if you've got an exhaustive understanding about the discipline and have keen interest in writing, so should you believe that you cannot write decent banking essays than again you're erroneous. The increase of internet marketing and the debut of the World Wide Web and mobile telephony have transformed the procedure of marketing. Stories are frequently used within indigenous cultures to be able to share knowledge to the younger generation. The presented topics can ordinarily be classified into two divisions. Narrative essays typically concentrate on a considerable event along with the consequences or broader impact of the occasion. Make sure it is error-free one of the most frequent explanations for why an application is rejecte d is as it is poorly written. There aren't many tips a student must follow so as to attain success through writing admission essay. It is essential for a student to be quite specific and clear about providing personal info. The Hidden Treasure of Samples of an Essay about Someone The debut of your essay can begin with a hook. Writing essay is something which is quite familiar for each of us back when we are still schooling. A financial essay can begin with a thesis, or it may begin with a theme. Regardless of the very first impression, a narrative essay isn't the simplest of all assignments. What You Can Do About Samples of an Essay about Someone Beginning in the Next 8 Minutes When an essay was made personal, it would be an easier read. Your essay may have a happy or sad ending, depending upon your story. When you compose a narrative essay, you're telling a story. Contrary to other essays in which you might want to argue or prove something, a narrative essay is all abou t telling a story. Ok, I Think I Understand Samples of an Essay about Someone, Now Tell Me About Samples of an Essay about Someone! First of all you have to chalk down the principal points and essential data that you need to include in the essay. Narrative essays serve wide array of purposes. The prompt ought to be focused. Samples of an Essay about Someone and Samples of an Essay about Someone - The Perfect Combination Poetry lets you express yourself or your beliefs in a brief selection of words. Following are a few of the steps which you should follow so as to compose grade-winning Poe essays. William Faulkner's As I Lay Dying is a quality instance of the usage of multiple narrators. Thus, to compose a great essay you need to brainstorm all thoughts concerning your life experiences. The subject of the narrative essay usually indicates the writer's experience and there's no need to use any data from the outside sources. Since the content of narratives essay can vary wh en it has to do with unique institutions, we've resolved to supply you with examples in the event you face an issue. A narrative essay is believed to be among the most popular varieties of tasks that students get all too often. Even essays written employing the stream of consciousness technique have a specific goal at the conclusion of the essay. A narrative essay isn't just an overview of your experience, but in addition it gives your thoughts on the background you're depicting and enables your reader to produce a conclusion. Your title is quite important, and you have to pay close attention to it. To compose a narrative essay step-by-step, you want an outline for your essay. The different stages in the evolution of the essay has to be evident to the reader. Every precise detail matters if you wish to assemble a great narrative essay. A personal narrative essay is just one of the greatest tools to stop social issues which are often disregarded. With good work of imaginat ion, it's really simple to produce plot ideas. Essentially, a plot is all the big events of a story working with each other to give it a point. Essay writing is quite an excellent idea in case you have reasonable English abilities, that could be put to good use in your leisure time. It isn't an easy task, some might think it is but what they are not aware of is that, it requires a lot of hard work and a focus mind. Samples of an Essay about Someone - Overview When you sit down to compose an essay, it is necessary to see that your essay is going to have considerable effect on your score which means you should present your best for it. Essay Types The very first thing you must note is that there are different types of essays. There are quite a lot of kinds of essays you might be assigned to finish. Without any of them, you cannot compose an excellent narrative essay.
Friday, May 15, 2020
At the turn of the 20th century, the United States had become the leading industrial power in the world, due to 19th century technological advances which escorted America out of an agrarian based economy and into the industrial revolution. However, this period of transition made life increasingly difficult for American farmers. For example, improvements to AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s railroads presented a competitive advantage to large crop producers while placing family farmers at a substantial disadvantage. Furthermore, the prices of crops such as cotton, once the keystone of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s agricultural economy, were falling which made it more difficult for farmers to survive. Consequently, farmers were forced to mortgage their property. Although some of the farmerÃ¢â¬â¢s complaints about life in the early 20th century, such as national monetary policy were unjustified, railroads and other consequences of the industrial revolution posed serious threats to the way of life for farmers. Although the emergence of railroads benefitted the nation as a whole, this mode of transport harmed famers by offering rebates to large shippers and businesses. The railroads asserted that rebates prevented them from going out of business. George W. Parker, a vice president of the Cario Short Line Railroad, asserted in his testimony to the Senate Cullom Committee, that Ã¢â¬Å"the operating expenses of this road is continuousÃ¢â¬ ¦requires a certain volume of business to meet these fixed expensesÃ¢â¬ ¦when we make up a train ofShow MoreRelatedThe Impact of Railroads in America1504 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescentury America was a time of rapid growth and expansion. The movement of settlers further and further west accompanied by technological advances led to the major growth of cities and industries across the American frontier. However, it was the major innovations of transportation that had the most significant impact on the expansion of Midwestern and western America. The construct ion of canals and roads led to the increase in the use of stagecoaches, steamboats, and ultimately railroads. RailroadsRead More Railroad Development in America Essay2385 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages Railroads have been around for almost two hundred years. Between 1820 and 1850 the first railroads began to appear and the need for the further development became apparent. America had just gone through an era of canal making; and now with the canals not in total operation, railroads began to thrive and take jobs that would once have gone to the canals. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã However, it was not easy for the railroad industry to promote their innovative new mode of transportation. With vision and ingenuityRead MoreEffects Of Railroads On America During The 19th Century1487 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEffect of Railroads on America in the 19th Century The Embargo Act of 1807, under President Thomas Jefferson caused the states, in the Northern and Southern regions of the Untied States, to form an interrelationship for economic self-reliance, from Great Britain. Although the Embargo Act was unsuccessful in gaining economic independence, the act created the necessity of a fast transportation system that would connect raw materials to manufacturers. The dawn of steel transportation railroads in theRead MoreEssay From Railroads to Microsoft: Monopolies in America962 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesindustries but have also supported industries as well. The Railroad Industry of the early 19th century is probably the most commonly known case of a monopoly in American industry, it is seen in our grade school and high school history books. The Railroad became a booming success and quickly integrated itself into American enterprise. With the rise of the Railroad, gave rise to other big industries used for the building of the Railroad, industries such as, steel, copper, iron, glass, machine toolsRead MoreTranscontinental Railroad. The First Transcontinental Railroad1003 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Transcontinental Railroad The first transcontinental railroad was built in the 1860s, though it was thought about way before those years. Its main purpose was to link the railway network of the Eastern coast with the rapidly growing state of California. No longer would people have to travel in long wagon trails that took months to reach the west coast. In addition to people, things like mail, supplies, and trade goods could now be shipped across the country in a few days. This helped revolutionizeRead MoreHow Important Are Railroads to American Industrialization?718 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pageswhen American development in industry started. However, railroads probably contributed the most to American industrialization. Without railroads during this time period, American development, especially in westward expansion, development of market/industry, and development of agriculture, would have been almost impossible. The construction of railroads encouraged westward expansion. When the construction of Ã ¡Ã °the first transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869,Ã ¡Ã ± (Era, 72) it provided many benefitsRead MoreThe Search For Order 1877-1920 By Robert H. Likert1346 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessociety and the search for itself identity through the years. Railroaded: The Transcontinental and the Making of Modern America by Richard White was about the expansion of the railroad of the west and the how America came to be in the modern age. Both authors, Robert Wiebe and Richard White, write about the same time period roughly, but they discuss different events that helped shape America at the time period. These events in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world would never fly a majority of the time, but we needed a time likeRead MoreThe Great American Expansion Essay1736 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages America was rapidly changing with the growth of ideas and inventions in the early nineteenth century. A major factor that allo wed the United States to flourish in the late nineteenth century was the installment of the railroad system. The push to build railroads in the United States began in the 1830s and carried on far into the 1870s. The railways became an important system that guided settlement and delivered economic opportunity for much of the United States. Railroads allowed access to placesRead MoreNegative and Positive Impact of the Transcontinental Railroad1165 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTranscontinental Railroad Jeff Neukirch History 101 American History to 1877 Dr. Kimberly Weathers 26 June 2012 The Impacts of the Transcontinental Railroad On May 10, 1869 as the Ã¢â¬Å"Last SpikeÃ¢â¬ struck by Leland Stanford now connected the Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads across the United States at Promontory Summit in the Utah Territory. The transcontinental railroads now complete and America is now destined to move to the forefront of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s stage. This new railroad system encouragedRead MoreThe Industrial Revolution was a great time of growth in the United States. During this time in800 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesStates. During this time in North America the eastern side of the United States is becoming overcrowded and people begin to set off in search for new land and a fresh start. Several factor contributed to both the rise and fall of railroads in the United States from the spread of westward expansion, to farmers need to stay connected to the rest of the nation, and to the start of railroad regulations agencies. In the 19th century the eastern part of North America began to become overcrowded with immigrants
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
When children are taught how to tie their shoes, it is because of how their parents showed them. When children are taught how to do math problems, it is because of how their teachers showed them. So with all of these role models, why is there so much violence? It is because children learn from what they see, even if its on the big screen. Violence in the movies should have strict regulation because it has negative effects on the behavior of children. First, we must define the negative effects of childrens behavior. In 1991, children under the age of ten committed more than 1000 acts of aggravated assault and 81 cases of forcible rape. Juveniles 12 and under committed ...murder, robbery, larceny-theft, and forcible rape(BennettÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦From his book, The Index of Cultural Indicators, William Bennett says, The following are the approximate number of deaths recorded in five popular movies: MOVIE DEATH COUNT Die Hard 2 264 Rambo 3 106 The Wild Bunch89 Robocop 2 74 Total Recall 74 New movies are just as packed with violence. In the movie Natural Born Killers, by Oliver Stone, a young couple named Mickey and Mallory fall in love. Being so carefree, as young lovers are, they terrorize the country by killing people for sport. Mickey ends up in jail, starts a riot in the jail, kills MORE people, and escapes to return with Mallory. There is excessive violence throughout the entire movie and it portrays violence and murder as a comical subject. Its not just the movies that are dangerous, but also the commercials for the movies. A commercial during a Saturday morning cartoon show advertized a Clint Eastwood festival with captions from a movie containing a graphic murder scene.(Gore 60) Throughout the past thirty years, violence in the media has increased, and so has violence in our society among young people. The fastest growing segment of the criminal population is our children(Bennett 30). There have been several tests conducted over the past three decades determining what causes social violence. The National Committee on the causes and prevention of violence reported in 1969 that violence in the mediaShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children873 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages According to the Media Education Foundation, once a child reaches eighteen years of age, they have witnessed around 200,000 acts of violence and 16,000 murders (jacksonkatz.com). Our society loves entertainment and a grand portion of this entertainment contains violence. Children constantly consume violent visuals, due to their prevalence. Majority of our society is uninterested in the effects of media violence since its effects do not show immediately. Misinformation is our greatest enemy in theRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children974 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmany kinds of media, like Internet, video game, television and film. It is generally believed that some of the bad information such as violent content in the media can have a negative effect on people, and it can end up causing s ome social problem. It is clear that children are more likely to be influenced by media violence than other age groups because of their world outlook and personality are not formed. Furthermore is if media violence does have some profound influence on children, this will leadRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children884 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesis all this necessary to fabricate in the media? What are characters in movies teaching kids? What about the language in music talking about killing people and talking about violence like itÃ¢â¬â¢s the cool thing? What about new channels always talking about guns, bombs and threats to the public, is this what is influencing are children because they view it as a norm? Some may agree with this as others may disagree. Media violence is not the factor in violence today. Studies show that over 90% of homesRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children1357 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe graphic cruelty and violence. According to American Psychological Association, the harmful influence of media violence on children dates back to the 1950s and 1960s, and remains strong today. A child that watches violence or hears about violence can be influenced to become violent. Indeed, in reviewing the totality of empirical evidence regarding the impact of media violence, the conclusion that exposure to violent portrayals poses a risk of harmful effects on children has been reached by theRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children1943 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesFor many years now, the media has been a big part of our lives. Almost everybody in the world is or has connected to it one way or another. It is a way for families and friends to have fun together, for interesting topics that people are interested in, or to just enjoy alone. However, there is a problem that can be seen across all types of media: violence. Violence can be seen as a distraught way to get over problems. There is judgement issues involved for violence. It is done by bullies in schoolRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children2411 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesMedia Violence is definitely harmful to children as the exposure of media violence can desensitize children (age 6-12) to violence and in the real world; violence becomes enjoyable and does not result in apprehensiveness in the child. There have been several studies and experiments regarding the adverse effects of violence used in video games, television, as well as movies. With both preschool and school-aged children, studies have found that they are more likely to imitate the violence they seeRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children2122 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesexposed to various types of media, for example books or magazines, television, song lyrics, video games, and movies. Media often portrays, aggressive action, behaviour, and violence. This content can negatively affect not only adolescents and adults, but can have an even greater effect on children even from the moment they are exposed to it. Children who are exposed to violence in the media may display aggressive and violent behaviour. Young people especially children under the age of eight thisRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children1903 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesdepict different forms of violence. Some people feel that there is too much violence exposed in the media. Many studies have made the claim that the media is responsible for much of the violence seen in the world we live in. However, people have choices and responsibilities we cannot allow ourselves to blame it on other things such as the media. The violence seen in our media has an impact on both adults and children. Since children are also exposed to various forms of media, there has been additionalRead MoreEffects of Media Violence on Children2430 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesThe Effect of Media Violence on Children and Levels of Aggression. It has been said that children are like sponges when it comes to attaining knowledge. This seems to be true whether they are learning to speak or how to show emotion. Feelings and emotions become more imminent once children begin to go through adolescents. Children acquire the ability to aggression, sadness, and happiness more readily. Males typically exhibit higher levels of aggression then females according to some researchRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children1270 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdifferent forms of violence. Some people feel that there is too much violence exposed in the media. Many studies have made the claim that the media is responsible for much of the violence seen in the world we live in (List and Wolfgang). However, people have choices and responsibilities we cannot allow ourselves to blame it on other things such as the media. The violence seen in our media has an impact on both adults and children. Since children are also exposed to various forms of media, there has been
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: How Green Ocean Strategy is Helping in Better Customer Retention and Customer Loyalty? Answer: Chapter 1: Conceptual framework 1.1 Introduction The market is growing with the increase in competitions, it has assessed that the customers has become more familiar environmental friendly product and services. Most of the business entities have becoming more conscious in respect of environmental attributes and elements to be engaged in the p-production of their goods and services (Mei, 2013). The green ocean strategy is adopted by the business entities for creating business opportunities by contributions in environmental developments. As per the assessment, Green ocean strategy solutions provide new conceptions for segmentations, market focusing, business territory evaluations with sustainable development and innovations (Green, 2010). In then analysis, the strategic approach is focused on transforming determinations of business more to customer service than product orientations. It helps to engage sustainable innovations and development in the product and services so that nit can able to enhance the market share of business organ izations. Sustainability, innovations and design enhances the product durability quality and performance by which the organisations able to create proper customer base and loyalty. As per the analysis the implications of the green ocean strategies the market analysis and segmentations are based on the customer needs and requirements. The research proposal is based on providing a critical and detailed analysis on the impact of green ocean strategies to create proper customer retention and customer loyalty for the UK based company Lenovo. With the engagement of research proposal, a proper learning and knowledge on the impact of green ocean strategy can be evaluated for enhancing the customer base and customer loyalty for the particular product or service. 1.2 Aims and objectives As per the selected topic, the aim of the research will be to focus and analyze elements and factors of green ocean strategy that can enhance the customer retention and customer loyalty of a business organization. Then particular topic will engage a brief study on relationships within the strategic approach of Green ocean and elements that enhance the customer retention and loyalty. The researcher has selected a case study of multinational computer technology and electronic gadget manufacturing comp-any Lenovo operating in United Kingdom. The engagement of different model, theories and approaches help to define the extent of Green Ocean strategy to enhance the customer base and customer loyalty for the company. For further penetration of the research, researcher based on the aim of the study has framed the objectives. The objectives for the research study have been framed as following: To analyze the role of Green Ocean strategy in increasing innovations and development of product or services To analyze the significance of Green ocean strategy in Lenovo To investigate the element of green ocean strategy in increasing customer loyalty of Lenovo To evaluate relationship between customer retention and Green ocean strategy of Lenovo 1.3 Research Question Based on the aims and objectives the researches questions are prepared to make more detailed analysis and evaluations on the research topic are framed as following: What is the role of Green ocean strategy to increase innovations and development of the product and services? What is the significance and use of Green oceans strategy in business operations of Lenovo? How elements of Green Ocean strategy can increase customer loyalty of Lenovo? What is the relationship between customer retention and green ocean strategy of Lenovo? How factors of green ocean strategy can increase customer retentions in Lenovo? 1.4 Rationale of the study As per the rationale of the study, the topic has been selected to analyses and evaluates the extent of impact of the Green Ocean strategy in increasing the customer loyalty and retentions. The Green ocean strategies is been used by most of the business entities to enhance high sustainable development and creativity in the product and services (Leavy, 2009). In the analysis, the strategy is more focused on the services quality and critical thinking on enhancing the customer base of business organizations. As per the assessment, with the engagement of this research study critical analysis and evaluations on the factors, approaches, conceptions and applications of Green Ocean strategy to be assessed (Taylor, 2013). It enhance knowledge and learning on the factors of this strategy increasing more quality based and sustainable service and impact of this sustainability and innovations can provide customer base and loyalty to a business organizations. Implications of the research help to ev aluate the factors of this strategy hat create relationship and influence customer attaint ion towards the product and service been introduced by the company (Kerton et al. 2013). However, the study provide positive implications of the green ocean strategy thus will not cover the overall impact of particular strategic approach on the business operations and increasing customer base, retention and loyalty. Chapter 2: Theoretical Framework 2.1 Theories of Customer retention and customer loyalty As per the standardizations of service quality theory, the customer retention is based on the loyalty and satisfactions of the customer. The customer retentions are been evaluated and assessed by evaluating the quality and experience level of customers to repurchase the product by repeated times (Nili and Keramati, 2012). In the theoretical approach of standardized customer service, the customer retentions evaluators long term attachment possibilities of customers with the particular product or brand in the market place. In the model of customer retention, it is been formed by brand image, customer value, customer experiences, product or service quality and loyalty of the customers (Tsao, 2012). Figure 1: Customer Retention (Source: Morton, 2013, pp- 75) In the other hand, the customer loyalty theory is based on believe and perceptions of the consumers on quality, benefits and features of the product and service been introduced by the business organizations in the market place. The analysis assess the loyalty of the customers are evaluated on the decision making procedure of the customers. As per the target market theory, the customer loyalty is based on the needs perceptions and expectations to be met by the organizations continuously (Olson, 2008). 2.2 Green ocean strategy The Green Ocean Strategy evaluates the sustainability and innovations in the product to enhance its quality relevancy and presentations in the market place. In the analysis the scope of the strategic approach of green ocean providing and changing trend to the lifestyle that has been accepted by the customers (Mei, 2013). As per the analysis, the customers are more conscious and depend on the environmental friendly and healthy products leaving which is accepted by the market. The theory of sustainable growth and development of the business defines; green ocean strategy is able to create more value concern to product and customer service. As per the analysis the implications of green ocean strategy drives the product orientations more towards providing sustainable service which create customer base and satisfaction level more efficiently (Kerton et al. 2013). In the analysis, the strategic approach of Green Ocean establishes a different and more critical targeting of the market. The implications of the green ocean strategy are based on the carbon emissions, environmental resource implications and minimizing pollutions. In other manner, the green ocean strategic approach creates proper corporate responsibility that enhances the customer attentions towards environmental friendly product introduced by the company (Nili and Keramati, 2012). Figure 2: Elements of Green Ocean Strategy (Source: Kerton et al. 2013, pp- 860) 2.3 Impact of Green ocean strategy The red ocean strategic approach enhances proper competitive advantage and edge for the market and Blue Ocean provides innovations and creativity to product or service to enhance its quality and presentations (Taylor, 2013). The green ocean strategic approached is the hybrid of Red Ocean and blue ocean strategy. It engages competitions and innovations in the production make it more durable and sustainable in the market place. As per the analysis, the green ocean strategy provides competitive edge and creativity to the product that makes the product more service oriented and attractive to the customers (Morton, 2013). Implications of this strategic approach in the business decline the wastage and cost of product that help the company to maintain standard pricing of product as per customer perceptions. The business entities able to provide more creative inventions in product or service with new technologies that are able to create opportunity of business in the market place (Olson, 2008). Innovations creativity and competitive advantage of the product create proper sustainability and durability formed by green ocean strategy. Implications of the strategic approach enhance the customer attraction, satisfaction and retentions with the product and services as consumer seek for innovative quality and standard price product in the market (Green, 2010). Chapter 3: Methodological Framework 3.1 Research Strategy and methodology The primary research data collection method is raw data collections from the participants on a particular research topic (McNiff and Whitehead, 2006). As per the analysis the primary data are been used to enhance practical information and data which focuses on the requirement and need of the study. In the other hand the secondary data is also used to gather theoretical conceptions and application to provide more better and clear understanding on the topic (Harrison and Reilly, 2011). In the particular research, the primary data sources were to be used for interaction with the customer and managers of Lenovo Group Limited. It will help to gather information as per the framed objectives of research. Figure 3: Data collection sources and technique (Source: Toloie-Eshlaghy et al. 2011, pp- 110) The random sampling technique has been used to select 50 customers and 5 managers of Lenovo to gather information by sample questionnaire. In the analysis, qualitative data technique has been used to evaluate narrative and theoretical information from the managers of company (Saunders et al. 2006). In the other hand with the help to survey questionnaire, a statistical information been gathered from the customers of the company. In the research a mixed approach has been used developing qualitative and quantitative information on tureen ocean strategy impact on customer retention and loyalty. 3.2 Logistical and Ethical Considerations As per the logistical considerations, the researcher wills appointments with the managers of Lenovo Group Limited United Kingdom and makes a telephonic interview to gather qualitative data on the topic. In relationsto the customers, an online interview via Facebook will be conducted with the distribution of sample questionnaire for gathering information on the research topic. There are some basic ethical considerations to be adopted and maintained by the researcher while conducting the particular research study (Magilvy and Thomas, 2009). As per the assessment, the information gathered on the topic to be used for the research only and cannot be shared with third individuals not related to research. The respondents are not to be pressurized for providing responses on the questions designed by researcher (Truscott et al. 2010). The respondents information need to be confidential if it is been requested and there should not be any external pressures to be made on the respondents for participating in the research. A Gantt chart has been designed to provide information on flow of research as per the time scheduling assessed (Collis and Hussey, 2009) (with reference to appendix) Chapter 4: Analytical Framework 4.1 Outcomes and findings As per the expected outcomes and findings, that will be extracted from the primary data collection provide critical evaluation on green ocean strategy impact on customer loyalty and retention of Lenovo. The evaluation and learning provide brief evaluation on factors and approaches of green ocean strategy that helps to make sustainable development of the product and service of organisation. It will also help to extract positive and negative impact green ocean strategy in enhancing the customer retention and loyalty. Qualitative and quantitative research results enhance factors elements and relationships between strategic approach of Green Ocean and customer retention and loyalty. The expected finding of research will also provide information on use of factors of green ocean strategies to sustainably grow market demand and attractions of the customers. 5.0 Conclusion The dissertations will provide critical evaluations and analysis of impact and significance of green ocean strategy for enhancing better customer retention and loyalty. In the particular study, the researcher focuses on factors and elements of green oceans strategy in prospect of chosen organizations Lenovo Group Ltd, UK. With the implications of primary data analysis, the researcher will able to extract information on better customer retention and customer loyalty of company through green ocean strategy. List of References Books Collis, J. and Hussey, R. (2009) Business Research, A Practical Guide for Undergraduate and Post Graduate Students, London: Palgrave, McNiff, J. and Whitehead, J. (2006) Action Research, London: Sage Mei, Z. (2013). On the Green Wave in Weibo Ocean. Kbenhavn. Morton, L. (2013). Strategy and Command. Greenock: 232 Celsius. Saunders, M. et al (2006) Research Methods for Business Students, Harlow: Prentice Hall. Taylor, P. (2013). The Thirty-Six Stratagems. Oxford: Infinite Ideas. Journals Green, J. (2010). Ocean tides and resonance. Ocean Dynamics, 60(5), pp.1243-1253. Harrison, R. L. and Reilly, T. M. (2011) "Mixed methods designs in marketing research", Qualitative Market Research: an International Journal, 14(1), pp. 7 26 Kerton, F., Liu, Y., Omari, K. and Hawboldt, K. (2013). Green chemistry and the ocean-based biorefinery. Green Chem., 15(4), p.860. Leavy, B. (2009). The green imperative: innovation opportunity. Strategy Leadership, 37(1). Magilvy, J. K. and Thomas, E. (2009) A first qualitative project: Qualitative description design for novice researcher, Journal of the Society for Paediatric Nurses, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 298-300. Nili, A. and Keramati, A. (2012). Customer Retention Programs of CRM and Customer Retention in E-Banking. International Journal of E-Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 3(1), pp.18-32 Olson, E. (2008). Creating an enterpriseÃ level green strategy. Journal of Business Strategy, 29(2), pp.22-30 Toloie-Eshlaghy, A., Chitsaz, S., Karimian, L. and Charkhchi, R. (2011) A Classification of Qualitative Research Methods, Research Journal of International Studies, 20, 106-152. Truscott, D. M., Smith, S., Thornton-Reid, F., Williams, B. and Matthews, M. (2010) A cross-disciplinary examination of the prevalence of mixed methods in educational research: 1995-2005, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 13(4), pp. 317-328 Tsao, H. (2012). Budget allocation for customer acquisition and retention while balancing market share growth and customer equity. Mark Lett, 24(1), pp.1-11 Appendix Table 1: Gantt Chart
Tuesday, April 14, 2020
Forecast Storms If you know where and when to look, you can treat yourself to a colourful display of atmospheric haloes, spots and pillars. These images can tell you something about the clouds overhead and possible changes in the weather. All of these images are created by light shining through cirrostratus clouds. These clouds occur at an altitude of 6,000-12,000 metres. They appear as a thin sheet or layer (strata) that is pure white. The layer of cloud is so thin (only 100-450 metres) that is doesn't obscure the sun or moon, so you should be able to see your shadow. Cirrostratus is made of many types of ice crystals. However, four crystal shapes are responsible for producing most of the commonly see haloes-plate crystals, columns, capped columns and bullets. The most obvious halo is found around the sun. If the layer of cirrostratus is extensive, you'll see an entire ring. Within the layer of cloud, sunlight is striking and passing through the sides of randomly-oriented ice crystals. As the s unlight passes through each crystal, the light changes direction, or refracts. The radius of the hale depends on the amount of change in the direction of the sun's light. Usually this is 22 degrees. Since the sun is 1/2 of a degree across, the radius of the halo is 44 sun-widths. Occasionally you may see a second halo at 46 degrees from the sun (that is, with a radius of 92 sun-widths). This is produced by sunlight passing through both the side and bottom of each crystal. Moonlight will also produce a halo, around the moon, with the proper layer of cirrostatus. Another common optical effect is known as "mock suns" or "sun dogs" or "parhelia" (Greek for "with the sun"). These bright spots on either side of the sun, outside of the halo, occur when sunlight passes through the sides of capped columns, bullets and plate crystals, when these crystals are arranged with their sides vertical. The crystals wobble, diffusing and smearing the colours of the mock sun. You can see haloes and mo ck suns more clearly if you block out your view of the real sun by holding your hand in front of it at arm's length. Another spectactular optical effect is the solar pillar. This is a vertical shaft of light the same colour as the sun stretching upwards from the sun and is most often seen at sunset or sunrise. It's produced by sunlight reflecting of the base of plate and capped column crystals in the clouds. You can also see pillars in an ice fog, when it's illuminated by streelights, or airport runway lights, for instance. The appearance of all these optical images is a good indication that the weather will change. Strong vertical air currents associated with low pressure storms carry moist air skyward, where the water freezes. High speed winds above the storm system push the ice crystals on ahead. When you see haloes around the sun or moon, you can be sure of two things-there are cirrostratus clounds above and, in a day or two, the skies will darken with an approaching storm.
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Trustworthy vs. Trustable Trustworthy vs. Trustable Trustworthy vs. Trustable By Maeve Maddox Hearing the word trustable used twice on National Public Radio (NPR) in what seemed to be a serious context, I decided to explore the usage. Although the form trustable can be documented- the OED cites examples dated 1606, 1884, and 1900- itÃ¢â¬â¢s a rarity in modern usage. Both, trustable and untrustable make a slight showing on the Ngram Viewer beginning in 1824 and 1852, respectively, but compared to trustworthy and untrustworthy, they never rise from the very bottom of the graph. A Google search brings up about 627,000 results for trustable, compared to about 60,900,000 for trustworthy. A search for untrustable leads inexorably to this statement by Kevin McCarthy: What are her numbers today? Her numbers are dropping. Why? Because shes un-trustable. Like David A. Graham, I was ready to attribute the suddenly popular usage of untrustable to McCarthy: Color me unimpressed. The most surprising thing about this quotation is McCarthyÃ¢â¬â¢s coining of the word Ã¢â¬Å"untrustable.Ã¢â¬ - Ã¢â¬Å"Kevin McCarthy Steps Into a Faux Outrage,Ã¢â¬ The Atlantic, September 30, 2015. The credit/blame for introducing the form untrustable can be traced further back than McCarthy. The OED has a single citation, from 1863: Ã¢â¬Å"Dennis will look up at you with hisgood-natured, untrustable, Irish grey eye.Ã¢â¬ - Charles Kingsley. In 1997, the group Built to Spill released an album called Perfect from Now On. One of the songs is called Ã¢â¬Å"Untrustable/Part 2.Ã¢â¬ The forms trustable and untrustable are not barbaric in the way so many recent coinages are, but theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not necessary. And to many speakers, they sound like errors for trustworthy and its negative form, untrustworthy. trustworthy adjective: Worthy of trust or confidence; reliable. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:7 Types of Narrative Conflict7 Tips for Writing a Film ReviewIs "Number" Singular or Plural?
Monday, February 24, 2020
A critical overview of the three interrelated disciplines of Communication, Media and Culture, and the theoretical and real-world problems they address - Essay Example It strongly emphasizes: how objects contribute in social interaction and how objects can have agency.The way people acquire knowledge by involvement in events and the vital role of networks and sponsors. Literacy is an essential lens for examining changing social practices, such as the effects of new technologies, the phenomenon of the overwork culture,and the growing audit culture. Pursuing how peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives are structured by engagement with texts of various kindsÃ¢â¬â¢ gives analytic purchase on these and other concepts. In reference to globalization, the examination of literacy practices issues a way of interrogating the complex changes in specific sites. Also, tracing connections between global and local practices, unfolding the exercise of power and documenting local forms of appropriation and resistance. Culture, media, and communication depend on each other for their existence (Golding and Murdock 2000, 70-92.). Communication is the key to a personsÃ¢â¬â¢ success, in the workplace, relationships, as a citizen, and across their lifetime (Morreale and Pearson 2000, 1-25). The ability to communicate comes from experience. Effective communication happens when a wanted effect is the outcome of intentional or unintentional information sharing, which translates between multiple entities and acted on in a desired way (Tulsky 2005, 359-365.). This effect ensures that messages do not distort during the communication process. Effective communication should produce the desired effect and maintain the force, with the ability to increase the effect of the message. Thus, effective communication serves the purpose for which sdesigned or intended. Possible purposes might be to invoke change, cause action, create understanding, inform or communicate a particular idea or point of view. When the craved effect is not achieved, factors such as barriers to communicating are explored, with the intention of discovering how communication
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Child Soldier Issue in Sudan, Uganda and Central African Republic - Research Paper Example The need to be able to earn a livelihood and support one's family in terms of earning mere amounts of money for younger siblings or suffering parents made many children become part of the worldwide child soldier community. The reasons that may thus prompt a child to become a child soldier may be the thought to support a poor family, separation from family or child running away due to unfavorable living circumstances, children displaced from their homes, children living in war zones, and children who may have little or no access to education. Orphans and children from refugee camps all over the world become acute targets of being enrolled as child soldiers as well. Owing to all the above mentioned possibilities it may we be assessed that social and economic pressures are the main key behind this grave issue. Children whose families live in warzones may have lost any of their close family member and resultantly may aim to avenge this incident by adopting to becoming a child soldier the mselves. "UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan has condemned child soldiering as a Ã¢â¬Å"damaging and despicable practiceÃ¢â¬ (Child Soldiers, 13) Feelings of uncertainty and insecurity prevail in underdeveloped societies. Families see their and their children's' survival only if they'd be equipped with arms and would be trained to fight for their rights no matter to whatever extent of training it may involve. In addition to all this the providing of free food, clothing and lodging for their children and security are also a very attractive incentives for them. Societal issues are also a major trigger of increasing number child soldier recruitments. For underdeveloped societies where the countries are in a state of unrest it is not uncommon for young children to have lost a single or both parents and to get caught at the hands of the child hunting mafia to get eventually ending up as a militia's recruit. At times the elders purposely brainwash their children and convince them to willi ngly become militants so as to boost their fighting force against their potential enemies. The Concept In certain societal adverse circumstances children may be forced to join armed forces. If they resist they may be threatened to be killed.("Why do Children Become Soldiers?",n.p.). Child soldiers are not part of mainly the official armies of nations but are rather recruited on a regular basis by armed political groups who need fresh blood, conveniently replaceable, potentially harmless and energetic individuals at a very rapid rate. The numbers of recruits are in tens and thousands and their recruitments are both legal and forcible. As a part of their training these poor recruits are subject to all kinds of non-ethical behaviors such as rape, violence, hard labor and other forms of exploitation as well as being trained to use all sorts of weapons under the harshest of survival conditions. ("Child Soldiers" 13) The experiencing of harsh and violent conditions at one's own hands and at such a trivial age of being below eighteen results at the undermining of humanity in the child's conscience. The resultant is that these child soldiers become
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Eric Larson, The Devil in the White City Essay Generically speaking, Eric LarsonÃ¢â¬â¢s book The Devil in the White City is a tale of architecture and a serial killer. The book reflects the society of the late 19th century, Chicago. In its own the work is a journey of the lives of the people of the great city and how they changed. It encompasses their hopes, their dreams and their treachery. In general where gender roles are concerned, it showcases how women, particularly those from the working class, shaped the city around them while sticking to their constricted roles. The book revolves around two central characters i.e. the architect and the serial killer, however, it manages to not just account for their lives, but in doing so highlight great poverty, violence and depravity of the age and America as it were during that time. It follows through one social crisis after another throughout the vestiges of its pages. It shows the social diversity along with individualistic diversity of the era. In order to understand the role of women during that time, we must first understand the dynamics of the society itself. In conclusion to the works, Larson pens in Notes and Sources Ã¢â¬Å"The thing that entranced me about Chicago in the Gilded Age was the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s willingness to take on the impossible in the name of civic honor, a concept so removed from the modern psyche that two wise readers of early drafts of this book wondered why Chicago was so avid to win the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s fair in the first placeÃ¢â¬ [p. 393]. The world of that age was a combination of great achievement and burning desire to be better than everything else. To achieve that dream men werenÃ¢â¬â¢t the only one making the efforts. Women were also breaking out of their age of crafted roles.Ã To win Ã¢â¬Å"first placeÃ¢â¬ , the race had begun and the general population strived for the collateral dream. The book talks about the two facets of reality and society. Good versus great evil. It highlights manÃ¢â¬â¢s desperation to be better, to achieve great heights. And on that journey man at times becomes irrevocably corrupt. As Larson states, Ã¢â¬Å"The juxtaposition of pride and unfathomed evil struck me as offering powerful insights into the nature of men and their ambitionsÃ¢â¬ [p. 393]. After the great fire of 1871, Chicago came back with a new vengeance. Each day hordes of new people walked into the city looking for a future and new dreams. Many of these people were young single women who were oblivious to the peril and dangers of the big cities they hoped to make their homes. Jane Addams, founder of Chicagos Hull House, wrote, Never before in civilization have such numbers of young girls been suddenly released from the protection of the home and permitted to walk unattended upon the city streets and to work under alien roofs. Her statement points to the status of women in America at the time. Women were going through a conversion; they were trying on new roles in their newly crafted world and leaving behind old ones. They were sheltered and protected and treading on alien territory when they left their homes. Clearly this was not the life most women were used to living; venturing out into the world was not something that was generally accepted as normal behavior. But like all else, things were changing and in the name of progress women were changing too. They found work as seamstresses, weavers, typewriters and what not. All jobs which had a man in charge or above them. Simply put they were to be the nurses, and not the doctors. The men who hired them were thought of, in that era, as noble characters. There were also those with less than noble intentions. During the summer of 1890, a warning was placed in the help-wanted section of the Chicago Tribune, cautioning female stenographers stating our growing conviction that no thoroughly honorable business-man who is this side of dotage ever advertises for a lady stenographer who is a blonde, is good-looking, is quite alone in the city, or will transmit her photograph. All such advertisements upon their face bear the marks of vulgarity, nor do we regard it safe for any lady to answer such unseemly utterances. The warning was placed in the Chicago Tribune by the First National Bank. Stepping into new shoes The women were now living lives designed for men. The city was not the same as it once had been. While there were good men keeping the honor of the city intact, there was no shortage of those who were ever ready to plunder it. There were large amounts of deaths, many of them were unknown men and women who were never identified and never saw their families again. One did not have to be murdered in Chicago; the city itself killed many in multiple accidents, you could simply step off a curb and get hit by a car and die. And of course there were the homicides. During the first half of 1892 Chicago was witness to nearly eight hindered homicides. The once innocent city was being turned into a vicious place. Chicago was turning out to become one of the dangerous cities to come out the United States of America. The streets were no longer safe and amidst dreams of becoming the best in the world, the greatest, the city did quite the opposite. Criminals Women now rose to a new status. They moved from being caregivers in the home, from being protected and sheltered, to being city girls making it on their own. And they then went from city girls to murdering harlots. Many incidences occurred where men killed women and women turned around to kill other men. Chicago was one big cesspool of criminal activity.Ã The criminal activity rose around the entirety of the nation, but Chicago stood out in its numbers. The 1888 killing spree courtesy of Jack the Ripper had the nation enthralled and addicted. None however, imagined something similar hitting their own cities. When men liked Holmes ravaged the youth of the city and went about murdering people, no one at the time thought it could be the work of a serial killer. People were too innocent, even with the crimes that shattered their lives each day, they refused to believe something that heinous could be taking place right next door. A good example of this stint was the Broadway show titled Ã¢â¬ËChicagoÃ¢â¬â¢ itself. It paints the story of Velma Kelly, a notorious criminal. In fact women were the only magnificent criminals in that show, while men played the part of protectors, lawyers, gullible husbands. The show was a satire on the state of things in the city. Woman has changed drastically, they were no longer thought of as naÃ ¯ve, innocent, noble creatures. They were scandalous entities.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Tourism In truth, the attributes of tourism have changed rapidly during the twentieth century. Today, it is virtually impossible even to avoid the effect that the tourism industry has on the world. On the following lines I shall in an explaining voice treat the subject of tourism and I wager you'll find it rather interesting. First and for most; Why do we become tourists? What is this incredible force which drives us to leave the safe shelter of our homes to travel to places some times thousands of miles from our native lands? Well, in order to answer that, we need to find out the benefits of tourism. It's usually us people from the richer countries in the west that travel abroad as tourists. This became possible during the early twentieth century, when the industrial revolution had reached most western countries in a big way, and the governments had begun to get more and more democratic. They started to have governmental foundings with the intention of giving people who worked in different sectors their wages in sp Although, most Americans would probably not be so negative about it. The American Dream that influences their society speaks for the strength of the individual. That is, if you really want to be rich, you can be, as long as you're not afraid of working hard. So, people obviously like being tourists, and the even more obvious reasons for that can be the need for something different to occur in ones life, not always being stuck in the same old tracks, over and over again. Or, that we need to relax, which you apparently can't do at home, only abroad. One classic reason for tourism is of course that it is a social benefit; You'll get a lot of attention from people back home both before and after the journey, which indeed can be just as much, if not more of a pleasure then the holiday itself. Tourism, according to the Department of National Heritage, apparently outnumbers most any other line of business, from construction industry to raising cattle. Today, it is more or less well known to people that tourism has grown to massive proportions, being almost the largest industry in the world. This of course brings along with it heaps of problems, connected to the fact that where there is money to be earned (and thus power to be controlled), man has neither moral nor restrictions to prevent her from doing just about all she can to exploit that source of wealth. In the compendium, there is an article from the Morning Star that talks about how people in the 70s
Monday, January 13, 2020
INDUSTRIAL POLICY SINCE 1956 When India achieved Independence in 1947, the national consensus was in favour of rapid industrialization of the economy which was seen not only as the key to economic development but also to economic sovereignty. In the subsequent years, India's Industrial Policy evolved through successive Industrial Policy Resolutions and Industrial Policy Statements. Specific priorities for industrial development were also laid down in the successive Five Year Plans.Building on the so-called Ã¢â¬Å"Bombay PlanÃ¢â¬ 1 in the pre-Independence era, the first Industrial Policy Resolution announced in 1948 laid down broad contours of the strategy of industrial development. At that time the Constitution of India had not taken final shape nor was the Planning Commission constituted. Moreover, the necessary legal framework was also not put in place. Not surprisingly therefore, the Resolution was somewhat broad in its scope and direction. Yet, an important distinction was made among industries to be kept under the exclusive ownership of Government, i. e. the public sector, those reserved for private sector and the joint sector. Subsequently, the Indian Constitution was adopted in January 1950, the Planning Commission was constituted in March 1950 and the Industrial (Department and Regulation) Act (IDR Act) was enacted in 1951 with the objective of empowering the Government to take necessary steps to regulate the pattern of industrial development through licensing. This paved the way for the Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956, which was the first comprehensive statement on the strategy for industrial development in India.Industrial Policy Resolution Ã¢â¬â 1956 The Industrial Policy Resolution Ã¢â¬â 1956 was shaped by the Mahalanobis Model of growth, which suggested that emphasis on heavy industries would lead the economy towards a long term higher growth path. The Resolution widened the scope of the public sector. The objective was to accelerate 1 Bombay Plan prepared by leading Indian industrialists in 1944-45 had recommended government support for industrialization, including a direct role in the production of capital goods. economic growth and boost the process of industrialization as a means to achieving a socialistic pattern of society. Given the scarce capital and inadequate entrepreneurial base, the Resolution accorded a predominant role to the State to assume direct responsibility for industrial development. All industries of basic and strategic importance and those in the nature of public utility services besides those requiring large scale investment were reserved for the public sector.The Industrial Policy Resolution Ã¢â¬â 1956 classified industries into three categories. The first category comprised 17 industries (included in Schedule A of the Resolution) exclusively under the domain of the Government. These included inter alia, railways, air transport, arms and ammunition, iron and steel and atomic energy. Th e second category comprised 12 industries (included in Schedule B of the Resolution), which were envisaged to be progressively State owned but private sector was expected to supplement the efforts of the State.The third category contained all the remaining industries and it was expected that private sector would initiate development of these industries but they would remain open for the State as well. It was envisaged that the State would facilitate and encourage development of these industries in the private sector, in accordance with the programmes formulated under the Five Year Plans, by appropriate fiscal measures and ensuring adequate infrastructure. Despite the demarcation of industries into separate categories, the Resolution was flexible enough to allow the required adjustments and modifications in the national interest.Another objective spelt out in the Industrial Policy Resolution Ã¢â¬â 1956 was the removal of regional disparities through development of regions with low industrial base. Accordingly, adequate infrastructure for industrial development of such regions was duly emphasized. Given the potential to provide large-scale employment, the Resolution reiterated the GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s determination to provide all sorts of assistance to small and cottage industries for wider dispersal of the industrial base and more equitable distribution of income.The Resolution, in fact, reflected the prevalent value system of India in the early 1950s, which was centered around self sufficiency in industrial 3 production. The Industrial Policy Resolution Ã¢â¬â 1956 was a landmark policy statement and it formed the basis of subsequent policy announcements. Industrial Policy Measures in the 1960s and 1970s Monopolies Inquiry Commission (MIC) was set up in 1964 to review various aspects pertaining to concentration of economic power and operations of industrial licensing under the IDR Act, 1951.While emphasizing that the planned economy contributed to the grow th of industry, the Report by MIC concluded that the industrial licensing system enabled big business houses to obtain disproportionately large share of licenses which had led to pre-emption and foreclosure of capacity. Subsequently, the Industrial Licensing Policy Inquiry Committee (Dutt Committee), constituted in 1967, recommended that larger industrial houses should be given licenses only for setting up industry in core and heavy investment sectors, thereby necessitating reorientation of industrial licensing policy.In 1969, the monopolies and restrictive Trade Practices (MRTP) Act was introduced to enable the Government to effectively control concentration of economic power. The Dutt Committee had defined large business houses as those with assets of more than Rs. 350 million. The MRTP Act, 1969 defined large business houses as those with assets of Rs. 200 million and above. Large industries were designated as MRTP companies and were eligible to participate in industries that wer e not reserved for the Government or the Small scale sector.The new Industrial Licensing Policy of 1970 classified industries into four categories. First category, termed as Ã¢â¬ËCore SectorÃ¢â¬â¢, consisted of basic, critical and strategic industries. Second category termed as Ã¢â¬ËHeavy Investment SectorÃ¢â¬â¢, comprised projects involving investment of more than Rs. 50 million. The third category, the Ã¢â¬ËMiddle SectorÃ¢â¬â¢ consisted of projects with investment in the range of Rs. 10 million to Rs. 50 million. The fourth category was Ã¢â¬ËDelicensed SectorÃ¢â¬â¢, in which investment was less than Rs. 0 million and was exempted from licensing requirements. The industrial licensing policy of 1970 4 confined the role of large business houses and foreign companies to the core, heavy and export oriented sectors. The Industrial Policy Statement Ã¢â¬â 1973 With a view to prevent excessive concentration of industrial activity in the large industrial houses, this Stat ement gave preference to small and medium entrepreneurs over the large houses and foreign companies in setting up of new capacity particularly in the production of mass consumption goods.New undertakings of up to Rs. 10 million by way of fixed assets were exempted from licensing requirements for substantial expansion of assets. This exemption was not allowed to MRTP companies, foreign companies and existing licensed or registered undertakings having fixed assets of Rs. 50 million and above. The Industrial Policy Statement -1977 This Statement emphasized decentralization of industrial sector with increased role for small scale, tiny and cottage industries. It also provided for close interaction between industrial and agricultural sectors.Highest priority was accorded to power generation and transmission. It expanded the list of items reserved for exclusive production in the small scale sector from 180 to more than 500. For the first time, within the small scale sector, a tiny unit wa s defined as a unit with investment in machinery and equipment up to Rs. 0. 1 million and situated in towns or villages with a population of less than 50,000 (as per 1971 census). Basic goods, capital goods, high technology industries important for development of small scale and agriculture sectors were clearly delineated for large scale sector.It was also stated that foreign companies that diluted their foreign equity up to 40 per cent under Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA) 1973 were to be treated at par with the Indian companies. The Policy Statement of 1977 also issued a list of industries where no foreign collaboration of financial or technical nature was allowed as indigenous technology was already available. Fully owned foreign companies were allowed only in highly export oriented sectors or sophisticated technology areas. For all approved foreign investments, companies were completely free to repatriate capital and remit profits, dividends, royalties, etc. Further, in o rder to ensure balanced regional development, it was decided not to issue fresh licenses for setting up new industrial units within certain limits of large metropolitan cities (more than 1 million population) and urban areas (more than 0. 5 million population). Industrial Policy Statement -1980 The industrial Policy Statement of 1980 placed accent on promotion of competition in the domestic market, technological upgradatrion and modernization of industries.Some of the socio-economic objectives spelt out in the Statement were i) optimum utilisation of installed capacity, ii) higher productivity, iii) higher employment levels, iv) removal of regional disparities, v) strengthening of agricultural base, vi) promotion of export oriented industries and vi) consumer protection against high prices and poor quality. Policy measures were announced to revive the efficiency of public sector undertakings (PSUs) by developing the management cadres in functional fields viz. operations, finance, ma rketing and information system. An automatic expansion of capacity up to five per cent per annum was allowed, particularly in the core sector and in industries with long-term export potential. Special incentives were granted to industrial units which were engaged in industrial processes and technologies aiming at optimum utilization of energy and the exploitation of alternative sources of energy. In order to boost the development of small scale industries, the investment limit was raised to Rs. 2 million in small scale units and Rs. . 5 million in ancillary units. In the case of tiny units, investment limit was raised to Rs. 0. 2 million. Industrial Policy Measures during the 1980s Policy measures initiated in the first three decades since Independence facilitated the establishment of basic industries and building up of a broadbased infrastructure in the country. The Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-1900), recognized the need for consolidation of these strengths and initiating policy me asures to prepare the Indian industry to respond effectively to emerging challenges. A number of measures were initiated towards technological and managerial modernization to improve productivity, quality and to reduce cost of production. The public sector was freed from a number of constraints and was provided with greater autonomy. There was some progress in the process of deregulation during the 1980s. In 1988, all industries, excepting 26 industries specified in the negative list, were exempted from licensing. The exemption was, however, subject to investment and locational limitations.The automotive industry, cement, cotton spinning, food processing and polyester filament yarn industries witnessed modernization and expanded scales of production during the 1980s. With a view to promote industrialization of backward areas in the country, the Government of India announced in June, 1988 the Growth Centre Scheme under which 71 Growth Centers were proposed to be set up throughout the country. Growth centers were to be endowed with basic infrastructure facilities such as power, water, telecommunications and banking to enable them to attract industries.Industrial Policy Statement- 1991 The Industrial Policy Statement of 1991 stated that Ã¢â¬Å"the Government will continue to pursue a sound policy framework encompassing encouragement of entrepreneurship, development of indigenous technology through investment in research and development, bringing in new technology, dismantling of the regulatory system, development of the capital markets and increased competitiveness for the benefit of common manÃ¢â¬ .It further added that Ã¢â¬Å"the spread of industrialization to backward areas of the country will be actively promoted through appropriate incentives, institutions and infrastructure investmentsÃ¢â¬ . The objective of the Industrial Policy Statement Ã¢â¬â 1991 was to maintain sustained growth in productivity, enhance gainful employment and achieve optimal util ization of human resources, to attain international competitiveness, and to transform India into a major partner and player in the global arena. Quite clearly, the focus of the policy was to unshackle the Indian industry from bureaucratic controls. This called for a number of far-reaching reforms : Ã¢â¬ ¢ A substantial modification of Industry Licencing Policy was deemed necessary with a view to ease restraints on capacity creation, respond to emerging domestic and global opportunities by improving productivity. Accordingly, the Policy Statement included abolition of industrial licensing for most industries, barring a handful of industries for reasons of security and trategic concerns, social and environmental issues. Compulsory licencing was required only in respect of 18 industries. These included, inter alia, coal and lignite, distillation and brewing of alcoholic drinks, cigars and cigarettes, drugs and pharmaceuticals, white goods, hazardous chemicals. The small scale sector c ontinued to be reserved. Norms for setting up industries (except for industries subject to compulsory licensing) in cities with more than one million population were further liberalised. Recognising the complementarily of domestic and foreign investment, foreign direct investment was accorded a significant role in policy announcements of 1991. Foreign direct investment (FDI) up to 51 per cent foreign equity in high priority industries requiring large investments and advanced technology was permitted. Foreign equity up to 51 per cent was also allowed in trading companies primarily engaged in export activities. These important initiatives were expected to provide a boost to investment besides enabling access to high technology and marketing expertise of foreign companies. With a view to inject technological dynamism in the Indian industry, the Government provided automatic approval for technological agreements related to high priority industries and eased procedures for hiring of fore ign technical expertise. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Major initiatives towards restructuring of public sector units (PSUs) were initiated, in view of their low productivity, over staffing, lack of technological upgradation and low rate of return. In order to raise resources and ensure wider public participation PSUs, it was decided to offer its shareholding stake to mutual funds, financial institutions, general public and workers. Similarly, in order to revive and rehabilitate chronically sick PSUs, it was decided to refer them to the Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (BIFR). The Policy also provided for greater managerial autonomy to the Boards of PSUs. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Industrial Policy Statement of 1991 recognized that the GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s intervention in investment decisions of large companies through MRTP Act had proved to be deleterious for industrial growth.Accordingly, pre-entry scrutiny of investment decisions of MRTP companies was abolished. The thrust of policy was more on cont rolling unfair and restrictive trade practices. The provisions restricting mergers, amalgamations and takeovers were also repealed. Industrial Policy Measures Since 1991 Since 1991, industrial policy measures and procedural simplifications have been reviewed on an ongoing basis. Presently, there are only six industries which require compulsory licensing. Similarly, there are only three industries reserved for the public sector.Some of important policy measures initiated since 1991 are set out below: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Since 1991, promotion of foreign direct investment has been an integral part of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic policy. The Government has ensured a liberal and transparent foreign investment regime where most activities are opened to foreign investment on automatic route without any limit on the extent of foreign ownership. FDI up to 100 per cent has also been allowed under automatic route for most manufacturing activities in Special Economic Zones (SEZs).More recently, in 2004, the FDI limits were raised in the private banking sector (up to 74 per cent), oil exploration (up to 100 per cent), petroleum product marketing (up to 100 per cent), petroleum product pipelines (up to 100 per cent), natural gas and LNG pipelines (up to 100 per cent) and printing of scientific and technical magazines, periodicals and journals (up to 100 per cent). In 9 February 2005, the FDI ceiling in telecom sector in certain services was increased from 49 per cent to 74 per cent. Reservation of items of manufacture exclusively in the small scale sector has been an important tenet of industrial policy. Realizing the increased import competition with the removal of quantitative restrictions since April 2001, the Government has adopted a policy of dereservation and has pruned the list of items reserved for SSI sector gradually from 821 items as at end March 1999 to 506 items as on April 6, 2005. Further, the Union Budget 2005-06 has proposed to dereserve 108 items which were identified by M inistry of Small Scale Industries.The investment limit in plant and machinery of small scale units has been raised by the Government from time to time. To enable some of the small scale units to achieve required economies of scale, a differential investment limit has been adopted for them since October 2001. Presently, there are 41 reserved items which are allowed investment limit up to Rs. 50 million instead of present limit of Rs. 10 million applicable for other small scale units. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Equity participation up to 24 per cent of the total shareholding in small scale units by other industrial undertakings has been llowed. The objective therein has been to enable the small sector to access the capital market and encourage modernization, technological upgradation, ancillarisation, sub-contracting, etc. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Under the framework provided by the Competition Act 2002, the Competition Commission of India was set up in 2003 so as to prevent practices having adverse impact on competitio n in markets. Ã¢â¬ ¢ In an effort to mitigate regional imbalances, the Government announced a new North-East Industrial Policy in December 1997 for promoting industrialization in the North-Eastern region.This policy is applicable for the States of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura. The Policy has provided various concessions to industrial units in the North Eastern Region, e. g. , 10 development of industrial infrastructure, subsidies under various schemes, excise and income-tax exemption for a period of 10 years, etc. North Eastern Development Finance Corporation Ltd. has been designated as the nodal disbursing agency under the Scheme. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The focus of disinvestment process of PSUs has shifted from sale of minority stakes to strategic sales.Up to December 2004, PSUs have been divested to an extent of Rs. 478 billion. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Apart from general policy measures, some industry specific measures have also been initiated. For instance, Elec tricity Act 2003 has been enacted which envisaged to delicense power generation and permit captive power plants. It is also intended to facilitate private sector participation in transmission sector and provide open access to grid sector. Various policy measures have facilitated increased private sector participation in key infrastructure sectors such as, telecommunication, roads and ports.Foreign equity participation up to 100 per cent has been allowed in construction and maintenance of roads and bridges. MRTP provisions have been relaxed to encourage private sector financing by large firms in the highway sector. Evidently, in the process of evolution of industrial policy in India, the GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s intervention has been extensive. Unlike many East Asian countries which used the State intervention to build strong private sector industries, India opted for the State control over key industries in the initial phase of development. In order to promote these industries theGovernm ent not only levied high tariffs and imposed import restrictions, but also subsidized the nationalized firms, directed investment funds to them, and controlled both land use and many prices. In India, there has been a consensus for long on the role of government in providing infrastructure and maintaining stable macroeconomic policies. However, the path to be pursued toward industrial development has evolved over time. The form of government intervention in the development strategy needs to be chosen from the two alternatives: Ã¢â¬ËOutward-looking development 1 policiesÃ¢â¬â¢ encourage not only free trade but also the free movement of capital, workers and enterprises. By contrast, Ã¢â¬Ëinward-looking development policiesÃ¢â¬â¢ stress the need for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own style of development. India initially adopted the latter strategy. The advocates of import substitution in India believed that we should substitute imports with domestic production of both consumer goods and sophist icated manufactured items while ensuring imposition of high tariffs and quotas on imports.In the long run, these advocates cite the benefits of greater domestic industrial diversification and the ultimate ability to export previously protected manufactured goods, as economies of scale, low labour costs, and the positive externalities of learning by doing cause domestic prices to become more competitive than world prices. However, pursuit of such a policy forced the Indian industry to have low and inferior technology. It did not expose the industry to the rigours of competition and therefore it resulted in low efficiency.The inferior technology and inefficient production practices coupled with focus on traditional sectors choked further expansion of the India industry and thereby limited its ability to expand employment opportunities. Considering these inadequacies, the reforms currently underway aim at infusing the state of the art technology, increasing domestic and external compet ition and diversification of the industrial base so that it can expand and create additional employment opportunities. In retrospect, the Industrial Policy Resolutions of 1948 and 1956 reflected the desire of the Indian State to achieve self sufficiency in industrial production.Huge investments by the State in heavy industries were designed to put the Indian industry on a higher long-term growth trajectory. With limited availability of foreign exchange, the effort of the Government was to encourage domestic production. This basic strategy guided industrialization until the mid-1980s. Till the onset of reform process in 1991, industrial licensing played a crucial role in channeling investments, controlling entry and expansion of capacity in the Indian industrial sector. As such industrialization occurred in a protected environment, which led to various distortions.Tariffs and quantitative controls largely kept foreign competition out of the domestic 12 market, and most Indian manufac turers looked on exports only as a residual possibility. Little attention was paid to ensure product quality, undertaking R for technological development and achieving economies of scale. The industrial policy announced in 1991, however, substantially dispensed with industrial licensing and facilitated foreign investment and technology transfers, and threw open the areas hitherto reserved for the public sector.The policy focus in the recent years has been on deregulating the Indian industry, enabling industrial restructuring, allowing the industry freedom and flexibility in responding to market forces and providing a business environment that facilitates and fosters overall industrial growth. The future growth of the Indian industry as widely believed, is crucially dependent upon improving the overall productivity of the manufacturing sector, rationalisation of the duty structure, technological upgradation, the search for export markets through promotional efforts and trade agreemen ts and creating an enabling legal environment.Bibliography 1. Ahluwalia, I. J. Productivity and Growth in Indian Manufacturing, Oxford University Press, Delhi , 1991. 2. Government of India Annual Report 2003-04, Ministry of Commerce and Industry. New Delhi. 3. Government of India Handbook of Industrial Policy and Statistics (Various Issues), Office of Economic Adviser, Ministry of Commerce and Industry. New Delhi. 4. Government of India Economic Survey 2004-05, Ministry of Finance. New Delhi
Sunday, January 5, 2020
AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of tragedy found in his Poetics, translated by S.H Butcher, is that the genre is Ã¢â¬Å"an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitudeÃ¢â¬ (23). The different Ã¢â¬Å"magnitude[s]Ã¢â¬ of tragedy are explored in both Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s and in EuripidesÃ¢â¬â¢ plays; arguably both are influenced by contrasting circumstances at the time of writing. Often the male is seen as the hero in tragedies, with strength being seen as a masculine trait and weakness as a feminine trait. However, Helene P. Foley argues that Ã¢â¬Å"although many female characters in tragedy do not violate popular norms for female behaviour, those who take action, and especially those who speak and act publicly and in their own interest, represent theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The suggestion that he is Ã¢â¬Ëlooking outÃ¢â¬â¢ for Medea is ironic as it was his own actions that lead to her feeling deceived by someone that she had done all sh e could to help. There is also a sense that he believes himself to be untouchable, despite what he has done, emphasising that it is Medea that is the one who has done something wrong by expressing her emotions. His seeming arrogance is what, arguably, pushes Medea to the infanticide that she commits at the end of the play because he does not own up to what he has done she feels it only right to punish him in the best way that she seems as fitting, killing his children. Nonetheless, Gamel also argues that Ã¢â¬Å"many tragedies feature strong, transgressive female characters and raise questions about the nature and role of womenÃ¢â¬ (486), in the case of EuripidesÃ¢â¬â¢ play this Ã¢â¬Å"strong, transgressive femaleÃ¢â¬ is Medea. He paints her as an extremely bold and stubborn character that is consumed by powerful grief, and it is this grief that fuels her own actions making her a strong female character. Medea is therefore seen as the tragic heroine of the play; however this idea is a complicated one as she does not fit the standards of a hero being morally good, rather it is argued that she is more of a barbarian. Euripides foreshadows MedeaÃ¢â¬â¢s barbaric actions when she tells her sons that she wishes they were Ã¢â¬Ëdone for, along with [their] fatherÃ¢â¬â¢ (78), her response to the injustice she feels. This sense of